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Forty-seven percent of these accidents involve animals on or approaching the highway. Thirty nine percent of these accidents involve objects on or approaching the highway.

Three percent of these accidents involve persons on the highway. There are several techniques currently under investigation for dealing with obstacles.

A first technique involves obstacle exclusion, such as using fencing, which solves part of the problem, but does not deal with obstacles such as vehicle components and debris.

A second technique involves obstacle detection using vehicle-mounted or roadway mounted sensors or both. A third technique, which is the subject of the present invention, involves a combination of braking and lane changing.

Current obstacle avoidance techniques for use in automated and partially automated vehicles all use braking as the sole means of avoiding a collision with an obstacle, or minimizing the impact with the obstacle.

Accordingly, it is an objective of the present invention to provide for an improved obstacle avoidance method for use in fully or partially automated vehicles using an automated highway system.

It is a further objective of the present invention to provide for an obstacle avoidance method that employs both braking and lane change maneuvers to avoid a collision with or minimize impact with an obstacle.

To meet the above and other objectives, the present invention provides for an obstacle avoidance processing method or algorithm for use with an automated highway system.

The obstacle avoidance processing method or algorithm minimizes the average expected value collision impact of one or more fully or partially automated vehicles with an obstacle on the highway, by performing a series of coordinated avoidance maneuvers.

In accordance with the obstacle avoidance method or algorithm, a set of decision rules is provided for determining whether affected vehicles that could potentially impact an obstacle should change lanes or brake to minimize the expected impact with the obstacle.

The presence of an obstacle in one of the automated lanes is sensed. There are two major components comprising the obstacle avoidance processing method or algorithm.

The first component is a set of decision rules that are used to determine whether the vehicle s should change lanes or brake in order to minimize the expected impact with the obstacle.

The second component of the algorithm is a series of maneuvers, coordinated by communication between vehicles or with a traffic management facility, that allow vehicle s in the same lane as the obstacle to change lanes in the smallest possible safe distance.

The probabilistic treatment of the position of the obstacle and the process of deciding between braking and lane changing in order to minimize expected collision impact are novel improvements provided by the present invention.

The present obstacle avoidance method or algorithm increases vehicle safety in the event that there is an obstacle on the highway.

The obstacle avoidance method or algorithm provides an advantage over "manual" drivers vehicles driven by people in that it increases vehicle safety by reducing the average collision impact, injuries, and property damage over many obstacle incidents.

The present invention does this using a more complex decision-making process than a human driver is capable of making, and by faster and more reliable communication among vehicles than is possible using devices such as turn signals and horns.

The obstacle avoidance method or algorithm provides for an improvement over automated and partially automated vehicle designs that use braking to avoid collisions with obstacles, to minimize the impact.

The obstacle avoidance algorithm results in a lower expected average drop in forward vehicle speed, or, when viewed over many obstacle incidents, results in a reduced level of injuries and property damage.

The various features and advantages of the present invention may be more readily understood with reference to the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein like reference numerals represent like structural elements, and in which:.

Referring to the drawing figures, FIG. The obstacle avoidance processing method 20 or algorithm 20 is designed for use with automated vehicles 11 that use an automated highway The obstacle avoidance processing method 20 or algorithm 20 may be employed as follows.

The automated highway 10 includes two or more adjacent dedicated automated lanes 12 also identified as lanes 12a, 12b for clarity , wherein all vehicles 11 using these lanes 12 are automated, and wherein the vehicles 11 move in the same direction in both lanes 12a, 12b.

The automated highway 10 is a freeway-type highway, having no traffic signals or stop signs, no intersecting cross-streets, and a median strip or barrier not shown disposed between automated lanes 12 dedicated for vehicles 11 moving in opposite directions.

An obstacle detection sensor 13 such as a radar, for example that estimates the position and velocity of an object 17 or obstacle 17 is disposed on each vehicle 11 or on or adjacent to the highway Obstacles 17 include such things as animals, debris that has fallen onto the highway 10, vehicle components such as a tire or muffler, or stalled vehicles All vehicles 11 communicate with each other, or with a traffic management facility 15 responsible for monitoring and regulating traffic flow, using transponders 14, for example.

Each vehicle 11 includes a processor 16 that is coupled to the vehicle's braking, steering and engine management systems not Shown that can accept commands from other vehicles 11 to brake, accelerate, or change lanes, or from the traffic management facility 15 if it is employed.

The processor 16 is also coupled to the transponder 14 and sensor 13 and processes sensed signals and commands using the present method 20 or algorithm The obstacle avoidance method 20 or algorithm 20 may be divided into two processes for ease of understanding.

The first is a decision-making process that iterates three times. On each iteration, the decision-making process uses the best current estimate of position of the obstacle 17, knowledge of any previous action that has been taken, positions and velocities of all vehicles 11 within the operating range of the vehicle 11, and the geometry of the highway 10, and determines a course of action for affected vehicles Affected vehicles 11 are those in the lane 12 where the obstacle 17 is estimated to be, or in dedicated automated lanes 12 immediately adjacent to the lane 12 containing the obstacle The decision-making process is supported by braking and lane changing protocols, or decision rules.

Each protocol divides the highway 10 into a series of imaginary longitudinal strips, or zones. At each of three decision times, an action is chosen based on the best estimate of the zone in which the obstacle 17 is located, and on the relative position of the vehicles 11 that are in the lane 12 containing the obstacle 17 and adjacent lanes When viewed as a whole, the sequence of actions for each obstacle avoidance event lane changing and hard braking is chosen successively at the three decision times and forms a decision tree with six to fourteen branches.

The second process is a response by vehicles 11 to the commands that have been transmitted. The vehicles 11 receiving commands accelerate, decelerate, or maintain speed longitudinally and laterally in order to perform light braking, hard braking, or initiate or abort a lane change, as cornmanded.

Simultaneously, additional sensor measurements are taken by either the vehicle 11 nearest to the obstacle 17 or by roadside obstacle sensors 13 depending on the location of the sensors 13 to improve the estimate of the position of the obstacle The algorithm 20 then iterates, using the updated estimate of the position of the obstacle 17, and a knowledge of the previous actions that have been commanded, to generate a new set of commands for the affected vehicles With each successive iteration, there are options that are dropped from the list of feasible maneuvers, since there is insufficient time to complete them before the obstacle 17 is reached.

The obstacle avoidance algorithm 20 builds on a number of lower-level concepts, referred to herein as building blocks.

These will be briefly explained first to provide a better understanding of the obstacle avoidance algorithm For the purpose of describing these building blocks and the algorithm 20, the following scenario is used with reference to FIG.

There are two dedicated automated lanes 12 equipped for use by automated vehicles 11 with traffic moving in the same direction, operating at near capacity.

All vehicles 11 have obstacle detection sensors 13 that communicate with other vehicles 11, and determine the relative positions of nearby vehicles An obstacle 17 is initially detected in the right lane 12 of the highway 10 some distance ahead of a group of vehicles If the obstacle 17 were initially detected in the left lane 12, a mirror image of the algorithm 20 would be executed, with right and left reversed in each case.

Two levels or ranges of braking are used to implement obstacle avoidance using the obstacle avoidance algorithm The first, referred to as "hard braking", is the maximum longitudinal deceleration that the vehicle 11 can attain, consistent with any lateral acceleration or deceleration that is required at the time.

The second level of braking is referred to as "light braking". Light braking is used when there is substantial uncertainty about whether the obstacle 17 is in the path of the vehicle The purpose is of light braking to reduce the speed of the vehicle 11 in preparation for hard braking, while minimizing passenger discomfort.

Gap alignment is the first phase of a lane change implemented using the obstacle avoidance algorithm In the present example, it is performed by vehicles 11 in the right lane 12 and is implemented by these vehicles accelerating or decelerating laterally and longitudinally illustrated in FIGS.

Gap alignment ends when the two vehicles 11 are separated longitudinally by a minimum safe distance. This minimum safe longitudinal distance is the smallest separation that is acceptable during an emergency maneuver, and is much smaller than the distance required for safe braking during routine operation.

As is shown in FIG. Merging is the second phase of a lane change. Merging begins while gap alignment is taking place, and is timed so that gap alignment achieves the minimum safe distance between vehicles 11 just as overlap occurs.

Overlap occurs when the left edge of the vehicle 11 in the right lane 12 lines up with the right edge of the vehicle 11 in the left lane as shown in FIG.

Merging ends when the left and right edges of the vehicles 11 are aligned longitudinally i. Vehicle separation, however, is monitored by the obstacle avoidance algorithm 20 until the speed of the vehicle 11 merging from the right lane 12 is the same as the speed of the vehicles 11 in the left lane Lane changes are referred to as Case 1 or Case 2 lane changes, depending on whether gap alignment is achieved by longitudinally decelerating or accelerating vehicles 11 in the right lane.

The Case 1 lane change is a more conservative maneuver and is used if substantial uncertainty about the position of the obstacle 17 exists, since the vehicles 11 in the right lane 12 reduce speed, decreasing the expected forward vehicle speed that would occur at the time of a collision should the maneuver fail.

However, at most speeds and spacings between vehicles 11, a Case 1 lane change is not possible from all geometries, so a Case 2 lane change must be used with some geometries.

Whether Case 1 or Case 2 lane changes predominate depends on the relative speeds of the vehicles 11 in the two lanes 12 in which the maneuver starts and finishes.

Braking and lane change protocols will now be discussed. These zones 18 are imaginary subdivisions of the width of the highway 10 used for the purpose of decision-making.

The three exclusion zones 18b, 18d, 18f correspond to the left shoulder exclusion zone 18b, the center exclusion zone 18d, and the right shoulder exclusion zone 18f, respectively.

Protocol decision times will now be discussed. The purpose of having multiple protocol decision times is to allow the obstacle avoidance algorithm 20 to reassess the situation at particular times as knowledge of the position of the obstacle 17 improves over time.

This protocol design uses three decision times, T 0 T 1 and T 2. At time T 0 , the obstacle 17 has already been acquired and has been tracked by the sensor 13 for a distance determined by the maximum range of the sensor 13, and the distance required to change lanes Time T 0 is defined as the last time at which lane changing can be initiated.

Light braking is done prior to time T 0 , since it is initiated when the obstacle 17 is first detected. Time T 1 is the last time at which a lane change can be safely aborted.

Time T 1 usually falls about halfway through the time period available for obstacle avoidance. Time T 1 is the last time at which a change in lateral acceleration will have any significant effect before the obstacle 17 is reached.

Time T 2 is the final decision time, and occurs about midway between T 1 , and T f , which is a time at which the vehicle 11 reaches the position of the obstacle Lane changing protocol options at time T 2 are to continue the action chosen at time T 1 , or to perform hard braking 21 if the updated estimate of position of the obstacle 17 makes the former a poor choice.

Protocol action sequences will now be discussed. When viewed as a whole, the sequence of actions for each obstacle avoidance strategy lane changing and hard braking chosen successively at T 0 , T 1 , and T 2 form a decision tree with six hard braking to fourteen lane changing branches, such as is shown in FIGS.

The probability is computed from conditional probabilities of the sequence of actions given a particular location zones 18ag for the obstacle 17, weighted by the likelihood of the obstacle 17 being located in each zones 18ag.

The conditional probability of an action, given a particular obstacle location zones 18ag , is the probability that the estimated position of the obstacle 17 will be in zone i, given that the true location of the obstacle 17 is in zone j.

The codes that appear above the action boxes in FIGS. The explanation of the codes is given below. The zones names are as shown in FIG.

For example, if the code CEZ appears above a box, then the action in the box is to be executed if the current for that decision time estimate of the position of the obstacle 17 falls within the center exclusion zone CEZ.

The zones names are as follows. Braking protocols will be discussed with reference to FIG. Upon possible detection of the obstacle 17, all affected vehicles 11 begin light braking Confirmation 23 is made whether the obstacle 17 is on or near the highway Then a determination 24 is made whether the range to the obstacle 17 is sufficient for braking the vehicle 11 to a stop.

This week, we try and understand the splits in the players coalition that has been negotiating with the NFL over the anti-racist protests taking place during the national anthem.

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Clean Hari Kondabolu on Baseball: The comedian behind albums like Waiting for and the Politically Re-Active podcast stops by to talk sports, social justice, Dave Chappelle and comedy.

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John Carlos about the legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King and what it means for today. Also this week I have some choice words about Milwaukee Bucks star Gia.

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Der Zündschalter kann zwei oder mehr Schlüssel zum Anlassen des Fahrzeugs aufnehmen. Jeder Schlüssel beinhaltet ein darin eingebettetes Zündschlüsselgerät zur Kommunikation mit dem Fahrzeug.

Das Zündschlüsselgerät umfasst einen Transponder nicht dargestellt. Der Transponder beinhaltet eine integrierte Schaltung und eine Antenne.

Die Schlüsselseriennummer und die verschlüsselten Daten werden verwendet, um den Motorcontroller zu berechtigen, das Fahrzeug anzulassen, falls die verschlüsselten Daten vorbestimmten verschlüsselten Daten entsprechen, die in einer Nachschlagetabelle LUT des PATS-Controllers gespeichert sind.

Im Allgemeinen wird angenommen, dass der Fahrer, der im Besitz des primären Schlüssels ist, ein primärer Fahrer ist.

Vom Fahrer, der im Besitz des sekundären Schlüssels ist, wird angenommen, dass er ein sekundärer Fahrer ist. Der Herstellercode entspricht im Allgemeinen dem Hersteller des Fahrzeugs.

Ein derartiger Code schützt den Anwender oder Monteur vor dem irrtümlichen Konfigurieren eines Schlüssels eines Fahrzeugs von Ford mit einem Herstellercode eines anderen Fahrzeugherstellers.

Das Mobilgerät kann eine Softwareanwendung verwenden, die in einem Prozessor auf dem Gerät läuft, um unter Verwendung eines fahrzeuginternen Modems mit Antenne ein Fahrzeugsteuersignal zu übertragen, um mit einem Fahrzeug zu kommunizieren.

Bei einer weiteren beispielhaften Ausführungsform können Aktualisierungen und Änderungen der Fahrzeugschnittstellenanzeige mit Hilfe der zwischen dem Mobilgerät und dem VCS eingerichteten Kommunikation an die Softwareanwendung des Mobilgeräts kommuniziert werden.

Der PATS-Controller kann in die Fahrzeugschnittstellenanzeige integriert sein oder als eine separate Komponente oder als in einen anderen Controller des Fahrzeugs eingebetteter Controller umgesetzt sein.

Der Fahrer kann im Besitz zweier oder mehr Schlüssel sein, die in Form eines elektronischen Übertragungsgerätes vorliegen z.

Die Schlüssel oder das Mobilgerät können jeweils ein eingebettetes Zündschlüsselgerät oder eine eingebettete Zündschlüsselanwendung für die Kommunikation mit dem PEPS-Controller beinhalten.

Bei einem Beispiel kann es für eine derartige Aktivierung erforderlich sein, dass der Fahrer den Türgriff des Fahrzeugs berührt oder an diesem zieht.

Sobald sich der Fahrer im Fahrzeug befindet, kann der Fahrer einfach eine Taste drücken, die auf einem Armaturenbrett positioniert ist, um das Fahrzeug anzulassen.

Weitere derartige Umsetzungen können stattdessen den Schlüssel programmieren, der verwendet wurde, um das Fahrzeug zu entriegeln und den Motor des Fahrzeugs anzulassen.

In einem derartigen Fall kann der Fahrer über die Fahrzeugschnittstellenanzeige die entsprechenden Menüs wählen, um alle Schlüssel oder Mobilgeräte freizugeben, die als Sekundärschlüssel programmiert wurden.

Das System beinhaltet einen Fahrzeugschlüssel , ein Mobilgerät und ein Fahrzeugcomputersystem , das einen oder mehrere Prozessoren in die Lage versetzt, Befehle vom Mobilgerät zu empfangen, sobald es mit den Schlüsselsicherheitscodes konfiguriert wurde.

Das als Schlüssel programmierte Mobilgerät kann durch einen Fahrzeugschlüssel umgesetzt sein, der in die Lage versetzt ist, mit Hilfe der RFID- oder einer anderen drahtlosen Kurzstrecken-Kommunikationstechnologie Sicherheitscodes zu übertragen.

Der Fahrzeugschlüssel kann mindestens eine integrierte Schaltung beinhalten, die dafür konfiguriert ist, eine oder mehrere Funktionen an ein Fahrzeugcomputersystem zu übertragen.

Wenn ein Anwender zum Beispiel die Türentriegelungseingabe auf dem Schlüssel drückt, wird sich die Fahrertür entriegeln, und wenn der Anwender die Türentriegelungseingabe zweimal drückt, werden sich alle Türen des Fahrzeugs entriegeln.

Ein weiteres Beispiel für die Kombination der Schlüsselanhängereingaben durch den Anwender, um zusätzliche Anweisungen von Fahrzeugfunktionen zu erreichen, beinhaltet insbesondere die Verwendung der Auswahl, die Türverriegelungseingabe zweimal innerhalb einer vorbestimmten Zeitspanne zu drücken, um eine hörbare Bestätigung, dass die Türen am Fahrzeug verriegelt sind, zu erhalten.

Der Fahrzeugschlüssel kann ein darin eingebettetes Zündschlüsselgerät für die Kommunikation mit dem Fahrzeug beinhalten. Das Zündschlüsselgerät beinhaltet einen Transponder.

Das vom Schlüsseltransponder übertragene Signal umfasst im Allgemeinen RF-Daten, die einem Herstellercode, einer entsprechenden Schlüsselseriennummer und verschlüsselten Daten entsprechen.

Die Schlüsselseriennummer und die verschlüsselten Daten werden dazu verwendet, das VCS zu berechtigen, das Fahrzeug anzulassen, wenn die verschlüsselten Daten vorbestimmten, in der Nachschlagetabelle des PATS-Controllers verschlüsselten Daten entsprechen.

Bei einer Ausführungsform kann der Fahrzeugschlüssel die Fahrzeugsicherheitscodes an ein oder mehrere Mobilgeräte übertragen Der Fahrzeugschlüssel kann mit einer Tastenfolge initialisiert werden, um die Übertragung der Fahrzeugsicherheitscodes zu beginnen.

Zum Beispiel kann der Anwender die Verriegelungstaste und die Entriegelungstaste gleichzeitig fünf Sekunden lang niedergedrückt halten, um den Fahrzeugschlüssel zu initialisieren, mit der Übertragung der Fahrzeugsicherheitscodes zu beginnen.

Der Fahrzeugschlüssel kann die Sicherheitscodes mit Hilfe eines Transponders, der insbesondere eine integrierte Schaltung und eine Antenne beinhalten kann, an ein Mobilgerät übertragen Der Fahrzeugschlüssel kann einen oder mehrere Prozessoren beinhalten, die mit einer Antenne kommunizieren, um drahtlos Fahrzeugsicherheitscodes zu kommunizieren.

Das Mobilgerät kann die Sicherheitscodes vom Fahrzeugschlüssel empfangen und die Konfiguration einer Softwareanwendung für das Ausführen eines oder mehrerer Fahrzeugsteuerungsvorgänge mittels des Mobilgeräts ermöglichen.

Wenn zum Beispiel eine Kundin bei einem Vertragshändler ein Fahrzeug kauft, kann sie einen dem Fahrzeug zugeordneten Schlüssel erhalten.

Die Kundin kann dann eine Anwendung auf ihr Mobilgerät herunterladen und den einen Schlüssel verwenden, um die Fahrzeugsicherheitscodes auf das Mobilgerät zu übertragen.

Sobald die Fahrzeugsicherheitscodes auf das Mobilgerät übertragen wurden, kann die Kundin das Mobilgerät als Fahrzeugschlüssel verwenden. Dies kann ermöglichen, dass der Fahrzeughersteller auf die Ausgabe mehrerer Schlüssel für jedes entwickelte Fahrzeug verzichten kann.

Bei dieser Ausführungsform kann eine Fahrzeugkundin das VCS mit Hilfe des Fahrzeugschlüssels starten, mit der Übertragung des einen oder der mehreren Sicherheitscodes an das Mobilgerät zu beginnen.

Der Prozess kann erfordern, dass das Mobilgerät an das VCS gekoppelt wird, bevor die Übertragung des einen oder der mehreren Sicherheitscodes drahtlos übertragen wird.

Der Prozess, dass der Fahrzeugschlüssel das VCS starten muss, um den einen oder die mehreren Sicherheitscodes zu übertragen, erfordert, dass sich das Mobilgerät sehr nahe am Fahrzeug befindet.

Der Prozess kann erfordern, dass das Mobilgerät in einem speziellen Bereich im Fahrzeuginnenraum angeordnet ist, bevor die Übertragung des Sicherheitscodes begonnen wird.

Nach der Übertragung des einen oder der mehreren Sicherheitscodes, die an das Mobilgerät gesendet werden, kann die Kundin den Fahrzeugschlüssel aus dem Fahrzeug entfernen und nun das Mobilgerät verwenden, um das VCS zu starten.

Sobald die Quittierungsüberwachung zwischen dem Mobilgerät und dem PEPS abgeschlossen ist, kann der Anwender die Türen mit Hilfe von Sprachbefehlen entriegeln, dem vom Mikrofon des Mobilgeräts empfangen und von der Fahrzeugschlüssel-Anwendungssoftware verarbeitet werden, um das Entriegelungsanforderungssignal an den PEPS-Controller zu übertragen Der Fahrzeugschlüsselanhänger kann insbesondere eine integrierte Schaltung mit einer Antenne beinhalten.

Der Anwender kann in Schritt die Übertragung der Sicherheitscodes vom Fahrzeugschlüssel auf ein Handgerät durch Drücken einer oder mehrerer Tasten auf dem Fahrzeugschlüssel starten.

Um in einem Fahrzeugschlüssel die Übertragung von Sicherheitscodes zu starten, muss als Berechtigung zum Beginnen der Übertragung von Codes von der integrierten Schaltung eine Kombination von Tasteneingaben empfangen und erkannt werden.

Zum Beispiel kann die Berechtigung, die Übertragung von Sicherheitscodes von der integrierten Schaltung auf dem Fahrzeugschlüssel zu beginnen, das Niedergedrückthalten einer oder mehrerer Tasten für eine vordefinierte Zeitspanne sein.

In Schritt kann die integrierte Schaltung eine oder mehrere Eingaben für die Berechtigung zum Beginnen der drahtlosen Übertragung von Sicherheitscodesignalen an ein Handgerät erkennen.

Sobald die integrierte Schaltung die Berechtigung zum Beginn der Übertragung bestätigt, überträgt der Fahrzeugschlüssel in Schritt den einen oder die mehreren Sicherheitscodes.

Die Übertragung von Sicherheitscodes kann mit Hilfe drahtloser Kommunikation ausgeführt werden, insbesondere mit Bluetooth-, WiFi- oder einer anderen sicheren drahtlosen Kurzstrecken-Kommunikationstechnologie.

Wenn der Fahrzeugschlüssel unterbrochen wurde, kann die integrierte Schaltung den Anwender in Schritt auffordern, den Übertragungsprozess neu zu beginnen.

Die LED kann während der Übertragung von Sicherheitscodes in einem Dauerzustand gehalten werden und kann blinken, wenn die Übertragung abgeschlossen ist.

Nachdem der Fahrzeugschlüssel die Übertragung der Sicherheitscodes abgeschlossen hat, kann der Übertragungsprozess in Schritt enden. In das Mobilgerät kann eine Fahrzeugschlüsselanwendung mit einer Kommunikationsschaltung eingebettet sein, die das Empfangen und Übertragen von drahtloser Kurzstreckenkommunikation ermöglicht.

Die Kommunikationsschaltung kann eine integrierte Schaltung mit einer Antenne beinhalten. Das Mobilgerät kann mit Hilfe drahtloser Kurzstrecken-Kommunikationstechnologie Fahrzeugschlüssel-Sicherheitscodes empfangen.

Die Mobilgerätanwendung kann in Schritt für das Mobilgerät des Anwenders konfiguriert und zum Empfangen eines oder mehrerer Fahrzeugsicherheitscodes gestartet werden.

In Schritt kann das Mobilgerät den Fahrzeugschlüssel erkennen, um die Übertragung zu starten, sobald sich die zwei Geräte nahe beieinander befinden, um eine sichere drahtlose Kurzstreckenkommunikation der Sicherheitscodes zu ermöglichen.

Der Fahrzeugschlüssel kann eine oder mehrere Nachrichten an das Mobilgerät übertragen, insbesondere Nachrichten, die Sicherheitscodes angeben.

Das Mobilgerät kann die Sicherheitscodes mit Hilfe drahtloser Kommunikation empfangen, insbesondere mit WiFi-, Bluetooth- oder anderer drahtloser Kurzstreckenkommunikation, um eine sichere Übertragung der Daten sicherzustellen.

Die Kurzstreckenkommunikation kann insbesondere Nahfeldkommunikation beinhalten. Das Mobilgerät kann in Schritt informieren, wenn die Übertragung des Fahrzeugsicherheitscodes abgeschlossen ist.

Das Mobilgerät kann angeschlossen bleiben, um die Fahrzeugschlüssel-Sicherheitsdaten zu empfangen, bis die Übertragung abgeschlossen ist. In Schritt kann das Mobilgerät, sobald das Mobilgerät alle Sicherheitseigenschaften vom Fahrzeugschlüssel empfangen hat, nun als Fahrzeugschlüssel dienen.

Die Mobilgerät-Softwareanwendung kann die Fahrzeugschlüssel-Datenübertragung nach Abschluss der Fahrzeugsicherheitscode-Konfiguration auf dem Mobilgerät in Schritt beenden.

Die Mobilgerät-Softwareanwendung kann verwendet werden, um einen primären oder sekundären Schlüsselstatus für diesen Mobilgerät-Fahrzeugschlüssel zu konfigurieren.

Der Fahrzeugbesitzer kann zum Beispiel eine PIN in eine Mobilgerät-Softwareanwendung eingeben, die seinem Teenagerfahrer gehört, um diesen Mobilgerät-Fahrzeugschlüssel als Sekundärschlüssel zuzuweisen.

Der Fahrzeugbesitzer kann Einstellungen für den Sekundärschlüssel konfigurieren, um die Fahrzeuggeschwindigkeit auf 65 mph zu begrenzen. Der Fahrzeugbesitzer kann Einstellungen für den Sekundärschlüssel konfigurieren, um die Radiosteuerung zu begrenzen, insbesondere hinsichtlich der Senderauswahl und der Lautstärkebegrenzung.

Der Fahrzeugbesitzer kann über ein Mobilgerät verfügen, das als Primärschlüssel konfiguriert ist: Die anderen Arten drahtloser Kommunikation können als eine oder eine Kombination drahtloser Technologien auf einem Handgerät eingebettet sein.

Das Mobilgerät kann insbesondere einen Anzeigeabschnitt mit einem Flüssigkristall-Anzeigegerät mit Touchscreen-Technologie beinhalten und einen Audioverarbeitungsabschnitt, der einen Lautsprecher und ein Mikrofon beinhaltet.

Das Mobilgerät kann eine Änderung des Status empfangen, der das Ändern eines Primärschlüssels in einen Sekundärschlüssel angibt.

Durch Umwandeln des vom Mikrofon aufgenommenen Sprachbefehls in ein Signal und durch Übertragen des Signals über die Antenne wird das Ausführen von Sprachsteuerfunktionen am Fahrzeug ermöglicht.

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The Super Bowl is upon us! What better to talk about than Marshawn Lynch Long distance radars use the lower microwave frequencies since at the upper end of the band atmospheric absorption limits the range, but millimeter waves are used for short range radar such as collision avoidance systems.

Microwaves emitted by astronomical radio sources ; planets, stars, galaxies , and nebulas are studied in radio astronomy with large dish antennas called radio telescopes.

In addition to receiving naturally occurring microwave radiation, radio telescopes have been used in active radar experiments to bounce microwaves off planets in the solar system, to determine the distance to the Moon or map the invisible surface of Venus through cloud cover.

The world's largest ground-based astronomy project to date, it consists of more than 66 dishes and was built in an international collaboration by Europe, North America, East Asia and Chile.

A major recent focus of microwave radio astronomy has been mapping the cosmic microwave background radiation CMBR discovered in by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson.

This faint background radiation, which fills the universe and is almost the same in all directions, is "relic radiation" from the Big Bang , and is one of the few sources of information about conditions in the early universe.

Due to the expansion and thus cooling of the Universe, the originally high-energy radiation has been shifted into the microwave region of the radio spectrum.

Sufficiently sensitive radio telescopes can detected the CMBR as a faint signal that is not associated with any star, galaxy, or other object.

A microwave oven passes microwave radiation at a frequency near 2. Microwave ovens became common kitchen appliances in Western countries in the late s, following the development of less expensive cavity magnetrons.

Water in the liquid state possesses many molecular interactions that broaden the absorption peak. Microwave heating is used in industrial processes for drying and curing products.

Many semiconductor processing techniques use microwaves to generate plasma for such purposes as reactive ion etching and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition PECVD.

Microwaves can be used to transmit power over long distances, and post- World War II research was done to examine possibilities.

NASA worked in the s and early s to research the possibilities of using solar power satellite SPS systems with large solar arrays that would beam power down to the Earth's surface via microwaves.

Less-than-lethal weaponry exists that uses millimeter waves to heat a thin layer of human skin to an intolerable temperature so as to make the targeted person move away.

The United States Air Force and Marines are currently using this type of active denial system in fixed installations.

This technique provides information on unpaired electrons in chemical systems, such as free radicals or transition metal ions such as Cu II.

Microwave radiation is also used to perform rotational spectroscopy and can be combined with electrochemistry as in microwave enhanced electrochemistry.

Bands of frequencies in the microwave spectrum are designated by letters. Unfortunately, there are several incompatible band designation systems, and even within a system the frequency ranges corresponding to some of the letters vary somewhat between different application fields.

P band is sometimes used for K u Band. When radars were first developed at K band during World War II, it was not known that there was a nearby absorption band due to water vapor and oxygen in the atmosphere.

To avoid this problem, the original K band was split into a lower band, K u , and upper band, K a. Frequency counters or high frequency heterodyne systems can be used.

Here the unknown frequency is compared with harmonics of a known lower frequency by use of a low frequency generator, a harmonic generator and a mixer.

Accuracy of the measurement is limited by the accuracy and stability of the reference source. Mechanical methods require a tunable resonator such as an absorption wavemeter , which has a known relation between a physical dimension and frequency.

In a laboratory setting, Lecher lines can be used to directly measure the wavelength on a transmission line made of parallel wires, the frequency can then be calculated.

A similar technique is to use a slotted waveguide or slotted coaxial line to directly measure the wavelength.

These devices consist of a probe introduced into the line through a longitudinal slot, so that the probe is free to travel up and down the line.

Slotted lines are primarily intended for measurement of the voltage standing wave ratio on the line. However, provided a standing wave is present, they may also be used to measure the distance between the nodes , which is equal to half the wavelength.

Precision of this method is limited by the determination of the nodal locations. Microwaves do not contain sufficient energy to chemically change substances by ionization, and so are an example of non-ionizing radiation.

It has not been shown conclusively that microwaves or other non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation have significant adverse biological effects at low levels.

Some, but not all, studies suggest that long-term exposure may have a carcinogenic effect. During World War II , it was observed that individuals in the radiation path of radar installations experienced clicks and buzzing sounds in response to microwave radiation.

This microwave auditory effect was thought to be caused by the microwaves inducing an electric current in the hearing centers of the brain.

When injury from exposure to microwaves occurs, it usually results from dielectric heating induced in the body.

Exposure to microwave radiation can produce cataracts by this mechanism, [28] because the microwave heating denatures proteins in the crystalline lens of the eye in the same way that heat turns egg whites white and opaque.

The lens and cornea of the eye are especially vulnerable because they contain no blood vessels that can carry away heat.

Exposure to heavy doses of microwave radiation as from an oven that has been tampered with to allow operation even with the door open can produce heat damage in other tissues as well, up to and including serious burns that may not be immediately evident because of the tendency for microwaves to heat deeper tissues with higher moisture content.

Adair conducted microwave health research by exposing herself, animals and humans to microwave levels that made them feel warm or even start to sweat and feel quite uncomfortable.

She found no adverse health effects other than heat. Microwaves were first generated in the s and s in some of the earliest radio experiments by physicists who thought of them as a form of "invisible light".

In , German physicist Heinrich Hertz was the first to demonstrate the existence of radio waves using a primitive spark gap radio transmitter.

They concentrated on producing short wavelength radio waves in the UHF and microwave ranges, with which they could duplicate classic optics experiments, using quasioptical components such as prisms and lenses made of paraffin , sulfur and pitch and wire diffraction gratings , to refract and diffract radio waves like light rays.

Experiment by John Ambrose Fleming in showing refraction of 1. In , Oliver Lodge and Augusto Righi generated 1. The subsequent development of radio communication after employed lower frequencies, which could travel beyond the horizon as ground waves and by reflecting off the ionosphere as skywaves , and microwave frequencies were not further explored at this time.

Practical use of microwave frequencies did not occur until the s and s due to a lack of adequate sources, since the triode vacuum tube valve electronic oscillator used in radio transmitters could not produce frequencies above a few hundred megahertz due to excessive electron transit time and interelectrode capacitance.

A word was needed to distinguish these new shorter wavelengths, which had previously been lumped into the " short wave " band, which meant all waves shorter than meters.

The terms quasi-optical waves and ultrashort waves were used briefly, but didn't catch on. The first usage of the word microwave apparently occurred in The development of radar , mainly in secrecy, before and during World War 2 , resulted in the technological advances which made microwaves practical.

It was found that conventional transmission lines used to carry radio waves had excessive power losses at microwave frequencies, and George Southworth at Bell Labs and Wilmer Barrow at MIT independently invented waveguide in In a microwave receiver , a nonlinear component was needed that would act as a detector and mixer at these frequencies, as vacuum tubes had too much capacitance.

To fill this need researchers resurrected an obsolete technology, the point contact crystal detector cat whisker detector which was used as a demodulator in crystal radios around the turn of the century before vacuum tube receivers.

The first modern silicon and germanium diodes were developed as microwave detectors in the s, and the principles of semiconductor physics learned during their development led to semiconductor electronics after the war.

Southworth at left demonstrating waveguide at IRE meeting in , showing 1. The first modern horn antenna in with inventor Wilmer L.

The first powerful sources of microwaves were invented at the beginning of World War 2: The MIT Radiation Laboratory established secretly at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in to research radar, produced much of the theoretical knowledge necessary to use microwaves.

The first microwave relay systems were developed by the Allied military near the end of the war and used for secure battlefield communication networks in the European theater.

After World War 2, microwaves were rapidly exploited commercially. In the s and 60s transcontinental microwave relay networks were built in the US and Europe to exchange telephone calls between cities and distribute television programs.

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